Managing FX Risks Effectively

Helping Corporates Stay Risk Neutral in the Midst of FX Volatility

The world has become a smaller place and certainly more interwoven economically, with companies of all sizes searching globally for untapped markets in which to sell goods and services, yet imports and exports generate only a portion of today’s foreign exchange (FX) transactions.  An ever-larger portion results from e-commerce, stemming from companies exporting music, games and other digital applications over the Internet. And growing even faster, if their stock prices are any indication, are companies brokering services in the shared economy, enabling individuals to rent out their homes, automobiles and other possessions to people from anywhere in the world, paying and receiving in desired currencies.

 

All those transactions create FX exposure, which poses challenges to treasurers in managing their companies’ cross-border, cross-currency receivables and payables.


A more strategic approach

 

Treasurers today are being asked to address this FX risk in new ways. What once was a more straightforward role is now more strategic, as treasurers are being mandated to manage more aspects of risk, including counterparty, transactional, economic and operational risk.  That means banks need to find ways to eliminate the FX friction their customers are dealing with in the daily operational cash flow.

 

In order to tap into new foreign markets, companies need to be able to price or invoice upfront in the local currency, so their local customers enjoy an easy, convenient paying experience, without having to take on the FX risk.

 

Similarly, as companies broaden their supplier base internationally, they also may need to be able to pay in the local currency. This helps mute the FX noise in dealing with suppliers and reduce the hidden buffer that suppliers may add on to protect themselves from FX market fluctuation.

 

By essentially shifting FX risk management to the bank, corporations can focus on their international expansion, customer acquisition, and forging stronger relationships with their customers, suppliers and vendors.


Guaranteed rate transformed

 

Guaranteed rate is not a new concept in the FX payment space. But with a limited guaranteed period (e.g., 24 hours or a few days*), it has not been geared up to support companies’ receivables and payables cycle, which runs up to 1-3 months or even longer.

 

When guaranteed rates are mentioned, treasurers tend to assume such rates may not be competitive. However, new solutions are emerging that not only significantly extend the rate-guarantee period but also address long-vexing FX-market issues faced by corporates, including a lack of transparency, rate competitiveness and burdensome administration. Those benefits also extend to the companies’ trading partners.

 

By helping clients get a better rate, transparency upfront and greater efficiency, we’re helping them provide a better experience for their customers and suppliers, so it’s good for their overall business expansion. Bank of America’s CashPro Flow guarantees rates up to six months. Building upon the predictability of corporate payment flows — receivables from customers and payables to suppliers — the bank makes it possible to offer a longer-dated guarantee with competitive pricing. The extended period comes at the request of the bank’s clients, as their payments continue to increase in volume and complexity.


The beauty of transparency

 

Wiring payments overseas to pay suppliers in other currencies has long presented challenges. A U.S. manufacturer wiring funds to pay for widgets imported from an overseas vendor typically alerts its bank, which in turn sends payment to the vendor’s bank, which rarely discloses its lifting fee, comprising the spread it charges and processing fees. In addition, the funds may take one to several days to appear in the vendor’s account. If the lifting fee is higher than anticipated, the payment could fall short. The funds could also arrive late.

 

Neither outcome is good for business, potentially generating friction with the overseas supplier and damaging the trading partners’ long-term relationship. However, guaranteeing the FX rate gives transparency to both sides of the transaction and can eliminate the emergence of such friction, as well as the possibility of vendors overinflating invoices to cover unanticipated currency fluctuations. See figure 1.

On the receivables side, the corporate’s customers know upfront what they must pay in the local currency. In addition, invoicing customers in their local currency allows them to avoid having to do a currency conversion at their local bank and then wire the payment. Instead, they can use their local payments systems, potentially reducing costs and almost certainly providing a better customer experience — always a plus in terms of fostering a long-term relationship. Even if a wire is necessary, it won’t require a conversion.


In summary

 

Back-end reconciliation of FX transactions in two currencies is time consuming and prone to errors unless automated. Bank of America CashPro Flow is fully integrated with its reconciliation software, providing corporates with the ability to seamlessly invoice in foreign currencies and facilitate automated matching and reconciliation. Such automation can result in significant cost savings and effective FX risk management.

 

Going forward, treasurers will focus on building greater visibility and control over their data in order to effectively manage the evolving risks that come from companies expanding and globalizing. This is where cash management banks can provide real added value.

 

#1BofA terms and conditions apply.Term of BofA’s guaranteed rate varies.

 

All services/products may not be available in all jurisdictions and/or may not be available as of the date noted and are subject to local regulation and to change without notice.


Key Takeaways:

  • In order to tap into new foreign markets, companies may need to be able to price or invoice upfront in the local currency.
  • As companies broaden their supplier base internationally, they also may need to be able to pay in the local currency.
  • CashPro Flow provides corporates with the ability to seamlessly invoice in foreign currencies and facilitate automated matching and reconciliation.
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“Bank of America Merrill Lynch” is the marketing name for the global banking and global markets businesses of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, derivatives, and other commercial banking activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC. Securities, strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“Investment Banking Affiliates”), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., all of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities. BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.

Investment products offered by Investment Banking Affiliates:
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©2020 Bank of America Corporation.

Disclaimer for Australia:

"Bank of America" is the marketing name for the lending, derivatives and other commercial banking activities of Bank of America Corporation ("BAC"). These activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of BAC and in Australia by Bank of America, N.A. Australian Branch ("BANA Australia"). "BofA Securities" is the marketing name for the securities, corporate advisory and capital markets activities of BAC. These activities are performed in Australia by Merrill Lynch Markets (Australia) Pty. Limited, Merrill Lynch (Australia) Futures Limited, Merrill Lynch Equities (Australia) Limited and their related bodies corporate which hold, or are exempt from the requirement to hold, an Australian Financial Services Licence. Apart from BANA Australia, none of the other BAC entities including BAC itself is an Authorised Deposit-taking Institution authorised under the Banking Act 1959 of Australia regulated by the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority. The obligations of BAC entities (other than BANA Australia) do not represent deposits or other liabilities of BANA Australia and are not guaranteed by BANA Australia.

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Disclaimer for India:

Bank of America, N.A. is a subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation, operating in India. Bank of America provides the following banking products in India: working capital and term loans, structured finance, export finance, global cash management, trade products, foreign exchange services and currency solutions. Lending, derivatives, and other commercial banking activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC.

Securities, strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation ("Investment Banking Affiliates"), including, in India by DSP Merrill Lynch Ltd, which provides the following services in India: Research, Equity Sales & Trading, Futures & Options, Electronic Trading, Equity Capital Markets, Debt Capital Markets and M&A. Investment products offered by Investment Banking Affiliates: Are Not FDIC Insured . May Lose Value . Are Not Bank Guaranteed.

©2020 Bank of America Corporation.

Disclaimer for Brazil:

“Bank of America” and “BofA Securities” are the marketing names used by the Global Banking and Global Markets divisions of Bank of America Corporation.  Lending, other commercial banking activities, and trading in certain financial instruments are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC.  Trading in securities and financial instruments, and strategic advisory and other investment banking activities, are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“Investment Banking Affiliates”), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., both of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities.  BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.

Ouvidoria Bank of America Merrill Lynch1 | DDG: 0800 886 2000

1Bank of America Merrill Lynch Banco Múltiplo S.A. and Merrill Lynch S.A. Corretora de Títulos e Valores Mobiliários

Investment products offered by Investment Banking Affiliates:

Are Not FDIC Insured • May Lose Value • Are Not Bank Guaranteed.

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“Bank of America” and “BofA Securities” are the marketing names used by the Global Banking and Global Markets divisions of Bank of America Corporation.  Lending, other commercial banking activities, and trading in certain financial instruments are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC.  Trading in securities and financial instruments, and strategic advisory and other investment banking activities, are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“Investment Banking Affiliates”), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., both of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities.  BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.

Investment products offered by Investment Banking Affiliates:

Are Not FDIC Insured * May Lose Value * Are Not Bank Guaranteed

Bank of America Corporation and its affiliates do not perform in any jurisdiction banking activities that are reserved by local law to licensed banks, except in those jurisdictions where its banking affiliates have procured the necessary licenses.

Unless otherwise indicated, all services/products are conducted on an offshore basis for Latin America. Some or all of the products may not be available in certain jurisdictions and are subject to change without notice.

This document and its content are for information purposes and shall not be interpreted as banking or financial intermediation, business solicitation and/or public offering of any kind.

“Merrill Lynch” is the trademark that Bank of America Corporation uses in the Republic of Argentina for its capital market, financial advisory and investment businesses, which are conducted by and through Merrill Lynch Argentina S.A.. This entity does not conduct any activities subject to banking license, such as capturing deposits from the public.

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Disclaimer for France:

BofA Securities Europe SA (“BofASE”) with registered address at 51, rue La Boétie, 75008 Paris, registered under n° 842 602 690 RCS Paris, is governed by articles L. 531-1 and following of the monetary and financial code. BofASE is authorized as an investment firm by the Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel et de Résolution (“ACPR”), is regulated by the ACPR and the Autorité des Marchés Financiers, and is not a credit institution. BofASE’s share capital is 5,276,300,000 €.

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“Bank of America” and “BofA Securities” are the marketing names used by the Global Banking and Global Markets divisions of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, other commercial banking activities, and trading in certain financial instruments are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, National Association, Member FDIC. Trading in securities and financial instruments, and strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities, are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“Investment Banking Affiliates”), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., both of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities. BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.

Bank of America, National Association, Hong Kong Branch, is a branch of a national banking association organized and existing with limited liability under the laws of the United States of America.

Disclaimer for Canada:

"Bank of America" and “BofA Securities” are the marketing names used by the Global Banking and Global Markets divisions of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, other commercial banking activities, and trading in certain financial instruments are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation including Bank of America, National Association, Canada Branch (BANA CB ) which is an authorized foreign bank regulated by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions. Deposits with BANA CB are not insured with the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation.  BANA CB shall not impose undue pressure on, or coerce, a person to obtain a product or service from a particular person, including bank and any of its affiliates, as a condition for obtaining another product or service from BANA CB.

Trading in securities and financial instruments, and strategic advisory and other investment banking activities, are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation including in Canada by Merrill Lynch Canada Inc. which is a registered broker-dealer regulated by the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) and a member of the Canadian Investor Protection Fund (CIPF).  Merrill Lynch Canada Inc. is registered as an Approved Participant of the Bourse de Montreal.

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<div class="init_content"><div id="tab-1" class="tab-content"><h2>General Disclaimer for Bank of America Merrill Lynch</h2>

<p>“Bank of America Merrill Lynch” is the marketing name for the global banking and global markets businesses of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, derivatives, and other commercial banking activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC. Securities, strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“Investment Banking Affiliates”), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner &amp; Smith Incorporated, and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., all of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of <a href="http://www.sipc.org/" target="_blank">SIPC</a>, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities. BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner &amp; Smith Incorporated and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.</p>

<p>Investment products offered by Investment Banking Affiliates:<br />

Are Not FDIC Insured • May Lose Value • Are Not Bank Guaranteed.<br />

©2020 Bank of America Corporation.<br />

</p>

</div>

<div id="tab-2" class="tab-content"><h2>Disclaimer for Australia:</h2>

<p>&quot;Bank of America&quot; is the marketing name for the lending, derivatives and other commercial banking activities of Bank of America Corporation (&quot;BAC&quot;). These activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of BAC and in Australia by Bank of America, N.A. Australian Branch (&quot;BANA Australia&quot;). &quot;BofA Securities&quot; is the marketing name for the securities, corporate advisory and capital markets activities of BAC. These activities are performed in Australia by Merrill Lynch Markets (Australia) Pty. Limited, Merrill Lynch (Australia) Futures Limited, Merrill Lynch Equities (Australia) Limited and their related bodies corporate which hold, or are exempt from the requirement to hold, an Australian Financial Services Licence. Apart from BANA Australia, none of the other BAC entities including BAC itself is an Authorised Deposit-taking Institution authorised under the Banking Act 1959 of Australia regulated by the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority. The obligations of BAC entities (other than BANA Australia) do not represent deposits or other liabilities of BANA Australia and are not guaranteed by BANA Australia.</p>

<p>©2020 Bank of America Corporation.</p>

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<div id="tab-3" class="tab-content"><h2>Disclaimer for India:</h2>

<p>Bank of America, N.A. is a subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation, operating in India. Bank of America provides the following banking products in India: working capital and term loans, structured finance, export finance, global cash management, trade products, foreign exchange services and currency solutions. Lending, derivatives, and other commercial banking activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC.</p>

<p>Securities, strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (&quot;Investment Banking Affiliates&quot;), including, in India by DSP Merrill Lynch Ltd, which provides the following services in India: Research, Equity Sales &amp; Trading, Futures &amp; Options, Electronic Trading, Equity Capital Markets, Debt Capital Markets and M&amp;A. Investment products offered by Investment Banking Affiliates: Are Not FDIC Insured . May Lose Value . Are Not Bank Guaranteed.</p>

<p>©2020 Bank of America Corporation.</p>

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<div id="tab-4" class="tab-content"><h2>Disclaimer for Brazil:</h2>

<p>“Bank of America” and “BofA Securities” are the marketing names used by the Global Banking and Global Markets divisions of Bank of America Corporation.&nbsp; Lending, other commercial banking activities, and trading in certain financial instruments are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC.&nbsp; Trading in securities and financial instruments, and strategic advisory and other investment banking activities, are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“Investment Banking Affiliates”), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., both of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities.&nbsp; BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.</p>

<p>Ouvidoria Bank of America Merrill Lynch<sup>1</sup> | DDG: 0800 886 2000</p>

<p><sup>1</sup>Bank of America Merrill Lynch Banco Múltiplo S.A. and Merrill Lynch S.A. Corretora de Títulos e Valores Mobiliários</p>

<p>Investment products offered by Investment Banking Affiliates:</p>

<p>Are Not FDIC Insured • May Lose Value • Are Not Bank Guaranteed.</p>

<p>© 2020 Bank of America Corporation. All rights reserved.</p>

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<div id="tab-5" class="tab-content"><h2>Disclaimer for Latin America:</h2>

<p>&quot;Bank of America Merrill Lynch&quot; is the marketing name for the global banking and global markets businesses of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, derivatives and other commercial banking activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., member FDIC. Securities, strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (&quot;Investment Banking Affiliates&quot;), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner &amp; Smith Incorporated and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., all of which are registered broker-dealers and members of <a name="SIPC" id="SIPC"></a><a name="SIPC" id="SIPC"></a>SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities. BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner &amp; Smith Incorporated and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.</p>

<p>Bank of America Corporation and its affiliates do not perform in any jurisdiction banking activities that are reserved by local law to licensed banks, except in those jurisdictions where its banking affiliates have procured the necessary licenses.</p>

<p>Unless otherwise indicated, all services/products are conducted on an offshore basis for Latin America. Some or all of the products may not be available in certain jurisdictions and are subject to change without notice.</p>

<p>This document and its content are for information purposes and shall not be interpreted as banking or financial intermediation, business solicitation and/or public offering of any kind.</p>

<p>Ouvidoria Bank of America Merrill Lynch<sup>1</sup> | DDG: 0800 886 2000</p>

<p>1 Bank of America Merrill Lynch Banco Múltiplo S.A. e Merrill Lynch S.A. Corretora de Títulos e Valores Mobiliários</p>

<p>&quot;Merrill Lynch&quot; is the trademark that Bank of America Corporation uses in the Republic of Argentina for its capital market, financial advisory and investment businesses, which are conducted by and through Merrill Lynch Argentina S.A.. This entity does not conduct any activities subject to banking license, such as capturing deposits from the public.</p>

<p>Bank of America México, S.A., Institución de Banca Múltiple is a banking affiliate in Mexico of Bank of America Corporation.</p>

<p>Bank of America N.A., Oficina de Representacion (Colombia), is a representative office in Colombia of Bank of America N.A., supervised by the Superintendencia Financiera de Colombia and authorized to promote in Colombia select products and services that</p>

<p>Bank of America N.A. provides outside of Colombia. Neither Bank of America, N.A., nor its Representative Office in Colombia, is authorized to carry out in Colombia any activities that are reserved by Colombian law to locally licensed banks.</p>

<p>Bank of America N.A., Oficina de Representacion (Peru), is a representative office in Peru of Bank of America N.A., supervised by the Superintendencia de Banca, Seguros y Administradoras Privadas de Fondos de Pensiones and authorized to promote in Peru select products and services that Bank of America N.A. provides outside of Peru. Neither Bank of America, N.A., nor its Representative Office in Peru, is authorized to carry out in Peru any activities that are reserved by Peruvian law to locally licensed banks.</p>

<p>Bank of America N.A., Oficina de Representacion (Chile), is a representative office in Chile of Bank of America N.A., supervised by the Superintendencia de Bancos e Instituciones Financieras and authorized to promote in Chile select products and services that Bank of America N.A. provides outside of Chile. Neither Bank of America, N.A., nor its Representative Office in Chile, is authorized to carry out in Chile any activities that are reserved by Chilean law to locally licensed banks.</p>

<p>Bank of America Corporation does not have banking affiliates, branches or bank representative offices in any other jurisdiction in Latin America.</p>

<p>Securities, strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner &amp; Smith Incorporated and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., which are registered broker-dealers and members of FINRA and <a name="SIPC_1" id="SIPC_1"></a><a name="SIPC_1" id="SIPC_1"></a>SIPC, and in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities.</p>

<p>Investment products offered by Investment Banking Affiliates:<br />

Are Not FDIC Insured * May Lose Value * Are Not Bank Guaranteed.</p>

<p>©2020 Bank of America Corporation.</p>

</div>

<div id="tab-7" class="tab-content"><h2>Disclaimer for France:</h2>

<p>BofA Securities Europe SA (“BofASE”) with registered address at 51, rue La Boétie, 75008 Paris, registered under n° 842 602 690 RCS Paris, is governed by articles L. 531-1 and following of the monetary and financial code. BofASE is authorized as an investment firm by the Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel et de Résolution (“ACPR”), is regulated by the ACPR and the Autorité des Marchés Financiers, and is not a credit institution. BofASE’s share capital is 5,276,300,000 €.</p>

<p>©2020 Bank of America Corporation.</p>

</div>

<div id="tab-8" class="tab-content"><h2>Disclaimer for Hong Kong:</h2>

<p>“Bank of America” and “BofA Securities” are the marketing names used by the Global Banking and Global Markets divisions of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, other commercial banking activities, and trading in certain financial instruments are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, National Association, Member FDIC. Trading in securities and financial instruments, and strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities, are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“Investment Banking Affiliates”), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., both of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of <a href="https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__www.sipc.org_&amp;d=DwMGaQ&amp;c=SFszdw3oxIkTvaP4xmzq_apLU3uL-3SxdAPNkldf__Q&amp;r=2-fdgqioXatVWN7aFbSrqqkIYS5e0AUsJriu71sulck&amp;m=DBWIn-g2hYkuBG-NP9mIQlXUMy1O5C6CsV6Zbz7RuDA&amp;s=QBhgdm8GdLo4qQza4wJIwqBVCE5Zws6wYDzPiEwfOZQ&amp;e=" target="_blank" style="color: blue;" class="t_track_hyperlink_in_text" data-bactmln="hyperlink_in_text_[sipc]_[https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__www.sipc.org_&amp;d=DwMGaQ&amp;c=SFszdw3oxIkTvaP4xmzq_apLU3uL-3SxdAPNkldf__Q&amp;r=2-fdgqioXatVWN7aFbSrqqkIYS5e0AUsJriu71sulck&amp;m=DBWIn-g2hYkuBG-NP9mIQlXUMy1O5C6CsV6Zbz7RuDA&amp;s=QBhgdm8GdLo4qQza4wJIwqBVCE5Zws6wYDzPiEwfOZQ&amp;e=]">SIPC</a>, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities. BofA Securities, Inc. and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.</p>

<p>Bank of America, National Association, Hong Kong Branch, is a branch of a national banking association organized and existing with limited liability under the laws of the United States of America.</p>

</div>

<div id="tab-6" class="tab-content"><h2>Disclaimer for Canada:</h2>

<p>"Bank of America" and “BofA Securities” are the marketing names used by the Global Banking and Global Markets divisions of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, other commercial banking activities, and trading in certain financial instruments are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation including Bank of America, National Association, Canada Branch (BANA CB ) which is an authorized foreign bank regulated by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions. Deposits with BANA CB are not insured with the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation.&nbsp; BANA CB shall not impose undue pressure on, or coerce, a person to obtain a product or service from a particular person, including bank and any of its affiliates, as a condition for obtaining another product or service from BANA CB.</p>

<p>Trading in&nbsp;securities and financial instruments, and strategic advisory and other investment banking activities, are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation including in Canada by Merrill Lynch Canada Inc. which is a registered broker-dealer regulated by the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) and a member of the Canadian Investor Protection Fund (CIPF).&nbsp; Merrill Lynch Canada Inc. is registered as an Approved Participant of the Bourse de Montreal.</p>

<p>Disclosure of <a style="margin-top: 0; color: rgb(1,33,105); background: rgb(255,255,255); padding: 0.0px;" href="/content/dam/boamlimages/documents/articles/ID17_0030/Canada_Best_Execution_Client_Disclosure_v1_2020.pdf"><strong>best execution obligations and routing practices</strong></a> for Merrill Lynch Canada Inc. (IIROC Dealer Member Rule 3300)</p>

<a href="http://www.iiroc.ca/Pages/default.aspx" style="background: none;"><img src="/content/dam/boamlimages/documents/articles/Disclaimer/iiroc.jpg" width="70%" /></a><a href="https://www.cipf.ca/" style="background: none;"><img src="/content/dam/boamlimages/documents/articles/Disclaimer/cipf.jpg" width="70%" /></a></div>

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<li><a name="tab-1" id="tab-1" class="tab-link">General Disclaimer</a></li>

<li><a name="tab-2" id="tab-2" class="tab-link">Disclaimer for Australia</a></li>

<li><a name="tab-4" id="tab-4" class="tab-link">Disclaimer for Brazil</a></li>

<li><a name="tab-6" id="tab-6" class="tab-link">Disclaimer for Canada</a></li>

<li><a name="tab-7" id="tab-7" class="tab-link">Disclaimer for France</a></li>

<li><a name="tab-8" id="tab-8" class="tab-link">Disclaimer for Hong Kong</a></li>

<li><a name="tab-3" id="tab-3" class="tab-link">Disclaimer for India</a></li>

<li class="lastLi"><a name="tab-5" id="tab-5" class="tab-link">Disclaimer for Latin America</a></li>

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